This study aims to consider the background of genesis and flow of craft education not to foster professionals but to cultivate common refinement. For identifying the reason that object making activity handling material and tools with hand was introduced and spread can confirm the necessity and value of craft education for students in present time. The method is based on reference research.
European manual training in 19th century, assumed as the early form of craft education, as an alternative for conventional intellectualism education. Manual training for students was incorporated into public education as a subject by Cygnaeus and taught with the establishment of an educational system called Salamon’s sloyd system. These attempts were spreaded throughout Europe and gone over to the U.S. to affect to Dewey’s laboratory school. Manual training, or craft education for students was mainly practiced by art theorists in 20th century. Read, Eisner and others referred experiencing various materials and realizing forms using tools as essential activities. This means that ‘craft process’, combination of the hand, brain and mind, enriches creativity and expands world of experience to promote personal development and contribute to communication with society.
The study shows that craft education in school education system has provided balance to rationalistic or typical textbook centered education since 19th century, playing significant roll to cultivate holistic humanity with balanced mind-body. Addition to this, it has affected to identify characteristics of craft education in Korean education system. It has ensured that the values of craft education drawn from the study, including ‘the value of cognitive development through hand-mind coordination’, ‘the value of manual skill and labor’, ‘the holistic value of reason and sensitivity’, ‘the value of in-depth thinking and expression’, ‘the value of good habit and manner’, is valid nowadays.