This study attempted to investigate the health behavior and health status of residents of the Seongjeong-dong rental apartment complex, where many vulnerable people reside in Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, and to understand the demand and quality of life for health care and welfare services. Data collection was conducted by visiting the household unit in person and conducting an interview survey, and the total number of households who responded to the final data collection was 405. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS window 21.0 statistical program. Each item of the subject s demographic and sociological characteristics, health management status, health care and health welfare service needs, and quality of life were analyzed by descriptive statistics. The degree of quality of life according to the subject s demographic and sociological characteristics was analyzed using t-test and ANOVA. The summary of the research results is as follows. First, 72.3% of the population aged 61 or older in this area, and 71 to 75 years old were the largest. The proportion of single-person households was 51.7%, and 64.1% of the respondents lived with an average monthly income of less than 1 million won. Second, in health behavior, 23.2% of the subjects smoked, and 78.7% of them smoked every day. 27.6% of the subjects drink alcohol, and 17.0% of those who drink more than 7 cups a day. 46.9% of the subjects said they did not exercise at all, and 28.9% of them did not receive medical checkups in the last two years. Third, 40.0% of the subjects recognized that they were in poor health. Looking at the health status related to major chronic diseases, 49.9% of the subjects had high blood pressure, and 11.9% of them said they were not currently taking medicine. 25.9% of the subjects had diabetes and 6.4% had stroke, and 41.5% of the subjects were diagnosed with arthritis. When it comes to medical use, 23.5% of them have not properly received medical use over the past year, and economic reasons are the highest. Fourth, in terms of health care and welfare service needs, the demand for living expenses assistance and health information provision was the highest. Fifth, the majority of respondents said that the quality of life was moderate, and the quality of life was worse than that of unmarried subjects. More active policy intervention is needed to promote the health of the vulnerable and support health care services, and it is necessary to develop a customized program for the vulnerable based on the results of local residents health care and welfare services.