In the Bible, ‘Sheol’ translated as ‘underworld’, is not only a concept of place or existence after death, but also a metaphorical expression used to indicate adversaries, persecution, pain, or illness. Therefore, an expression “the Lord saves human life from the Sheol” in the Old Testament cannot be regarded solely as the meaning of ‘resurrection from death’, and careful interpretation is required. This study focuses on the meaning of ‘human existence after death’, leaving aside the metaphorical meanings of Sheol. The views of death and afterlife of ancient Israelites have been evolved and developed over a long time, and this process is found in wisdom literature. Wisdom literature preserves the traditional ideas about death and Sheol, while being influenced by Judean apocalyptic literature and Greek philosophy, and has developed them greatly in the time of persecution and martyrdom. Wisdom literature consistently emphasizes that a life of practicing wisdom qualitatively enriches biological and earthly human existence and brings freedom and liberation. The books of Job, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes regarded death as an escape from pain, the result of judgment for the wicked and the basis of the absolute vanity of human life. However, the books of Ecclesiastes and Wisdom, composed in the late Old Testament period, rediscovered the ‘qualitative’ meaning of life and death. Ecclesiastes discovers the positive meaning and transcendent value in blessed death and memory of descendants for the dead, while Wisdom, in particular, expands the ultimate meaning of human life beyond the present life to the perspective of ‘immortality’. Understanding the views on death and afterlife revealed in wisdom literature is essential to comprehend both the Israel’s traditional interpretations of them and the judgment and resurrection ideas of the New Testament era. Wisdom literature has become a ‘bridge of faith’ that enables believers, who traditionally perceived death and afterlife negatively, to understand Jesus Christ’s words about judgment, death and the reward of eternal life and to devote themselves to Him.