The purpose of this study is to examine the location, characteristics and management system of Russo-chinese border, which was defined by the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689 and the Treaty of Kyakhta in 1727. In this way, we can identify the specific features of the Russ-chinese border and identify the meaning of the new border crossing the Central Eurasia in world history.
The Russo-chinese border, formed through the Nerchinsk-Kyakhta treaty system, was the product of the expansion and compromise of two growing empires. Thus a border line managed by two sustainable empires was formed in a vast region of central Eurasia, from the Shabina pass in the West to Kyakhta, the Argun River, the Gorbitsa River, the Stanovoi Mountains and the Uda River Basin. The area between Shabina pass and Kyakhta was a natural border consisting mainly of the Sayan Mountains. The area from Gorbitsa River to Uda River Basin was practically a buffer zone. Therefore, the communication of the two empires was mainly carried out in the Kyakhta-Argun area, in particular Kyakhta performed the function of the interfaith space between multi-races of the two empires.
Overall, the Nerchinsk-Kyakhta border system was aimed at security rather than communication. The new border regime strictly regulated the conduct of anyone across the borders of both countries. In particular, the treaty statement states that the escapees are to be put to death on the spot, and stipulates strict punishment for crossing the border for livelihood. All such activities across borders were possible only through the official permission from the state, and the Cossack Garrison and the Mongolian cavalry were responsible for the border surveillance. But it was open to the Eurasian people to find new contact zones through two border towns, Kyakhta in Russia and Maimachen in China in order to maintain the border and provide basic communication.