There are two long-standing issues regarding Pyongyang, which is known as the third royal city of Goguryeo. One is the location of Pyongyang , which appeared before the Pyongyang transfer in 427, and the other is the location of former period Pyongyang which was transferred in 427. The purpose of this article is to solve these two issues.
In order to solve the former one, this article sets Pyongyang on the Jian area before the expulsion of Nangnang in 313, and Pyongyang on the present Pyongyang area after the expulsion.
However, the location of the Pyongyangdonghwang fortress which appeared in 343 was hard to locate, but the difference between transfer of a royal city(移都) and transfer of a palace(移居) is worthy of notice.
In order to solve the second issue, Anhak palace theory, Cheongam-ri fortress theory, and Daesung district theory were raised. The weak points of Anhak palace and Cheongam-ri theory were clear among these theories. These were especially outcome of obsession with identifying the structure of royal city of Goguryeo as a combination of mountain and flatland fortress. This article puts emphasis on the Daesung district theory and the possibility that
there was no flatland fortress in the former period Pyongyang fortress.