This study is aimed to examine structural problems found in local governments’ establishment of public museums and suggest the possibility of solving them. To address the goal, this study investigated ways to build and operate public museums efficiently based on the conditions and problems of public museums in Korea and the cases experienced by this researcher. In Korea, the problem of lacking in curators and budgets for public museums has been raised since the early 1990’s continuously, but it has not been solved even in the situation that public museums have increased dramatically since the local autonomy system was implemented. Besides, despite the recent operation of the museum-related system by the Ministry of Culture, the poor operation of public museums has not gotten any better. The fundamental cause of this problem is the lack of national benefits or sanctions that would make local governments become interested in public museums. Accordingly, to redefine the relationship between local governments and the Ministry of Culture which are the operating entities of public museums, this researcher proposes to reorganize laws and systems and to link the results of evaluating public museums to the government’s supportive system with state funds. This will make local governments operate public museums normally in order not to lose the budgets provided by the government. It will also elicit active cooperation from local governments in promoting policies and systems for museums in Korea afterwards.