To address the needs of fast-changing markets and consumers, leader’s role in providing employees with job autonomy becomes ever more important. On the other hand, employee job autonomy has been associated with negative effects such as an increased level of stress. This study is carried out in the context of Chinese firms which operate in Confucian cultural background with an emphasis on collectivist socialism characterized by relatively low power distance and equality in distribution. More specifically, this study investigates the relationship between Chinese employees’ job autonomy and their level of job satisfaction and stress. This study further explores how this relationship is moderated by (a) the types of organizational culture that fit the principles of job autonomy including proactivity and taking initiatives, and (b) satisfaction with human resources practices such as compensation and training. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted using survey data from 202 Chinese employees in Chinese firms. The results show that employee job autonomy is positively associated with both job satisfaction and job stress. The positive relationship between job autonomy and job stress is weakened by hierarchical organizational culture and pay satisfaction. Also, satisfaction with pay and training strengthens the positive relationship between job autonomy and job satisfaction. In addition, the positive relationship between job autonomy and job stress is weakened by pay satisfaction, whereas the relationship is strengthened by training satisfaction. The result indicates the importance of understanding the mechanisms that amplify the positive effects of job autonomy and attenuate its negative effects as well in the context of Chinese firms, which provides theoretical and practical implications for leaders’ effective management of employee job autonomy. On the basis of a deeper understanding of organizational culture of Chinese firms and Chinese employees’ attitudes toward job autonomy, this study aims at contributing to the establishment of a more productive relationship between Korean and Chinese firms.