During the Byeongin persecution, a total of 10 believers (4: 1868, 6: 1871) were executed in the Jemuljindu. So far, however, the relations between the Jemuljindu and Roman Catholic Church have been barely known. Four martyrs who were put to death in 1868 are briefly mentioned in Chimyeongilgi (records of the persecution on Catholicism) and the Testimony of Park Soon-jip. In addition, six martyrs who died in 1871 are just reported in an article in Ilseongrok (a dairy-style chronicle of kings' daily lives in the late Joseon Dynasty). Under these circumstances, this study has attempted to investigate relations between the persecution of the Catholic Church and the Jemuljindu in Incheon and review the background that Roman Catholics were executed in the Jemuljindu in 1868 and 1871.
According to the records, Peter Son and others were executed 1868 when the movement of cheoksa (rejection of heterodoxy) was at its peak due to the Yeongjong Battle and Deoksan Incident in which believers involved. In 1871, on the contrary, Lee Yeon-gu and his brother were executed for attempting to enter into the U.S. warship which caused Shinmiyangyo (the United States expedition to Korea in 1871). In addition, three believers including Lee Jae-gyeom's wife were put to death in the Jemuljindu in the aftermath of Shinmiyangyo.
After all, the background and process of the execution of Roman Catholics in the Jemuljindu can be diagramed as follows; invasion of the western powers → doubt on Roman Catholic's connection with the western powers → spread of cheoksa (rejection of heterodoxy) → order to persecute Catholicism → execution of Roman Catholics in a place(jindu) related with the western ship to make the public be on the alert.
This kind of execution started in 1866 (Yanghwajindu Execution) and continued with Gapgotjindu Execution (Ganghwa, 1868) and Galmajindu Execution (Boryeong, 1871). At that time, when an incident associated with a western ship took place, believers jindu around the related region were executed. Meanwhile, Jemuljindu is meaningful as a martyrdom site. However, it is another matter if people who were killed there are all martyrs. In other words, it is necessary to analyze the Jemuljindu martyrdom site and martyrs separately from an objective perspective.