Wu Yushan(1632~1718) is one of “six great masters of the Qing Dynasty” representing the landscape painting circle during the Qing Dynasty. He was one of intellectuals with fame who constructed his own world even in poetry and music as well. The mission project in China by the Society of Jesus is closely related to the relationships of Wu Yushan in 1680 with the ‘contact zone’ Macau where cultures are exchanged between Europe and Asia.
Wu Yushan received a Catholic name called Simon Xaverius (西滿 · 沙勿略) as he entered the Society of Jesus formally in 1682 and wrote many poems other than 80 poems of “Saint Study Poem(聖學詩)” containing his understanding on doctrines for 3 years in Macau, while praising ancient sagas in the Society of Jesus. 30 poems in Aozhongzayong contain poems describing the natural and human environment of Macau from the perspective of Wu Yushan as a landscape painter as well as a literary man.
In this presentation, the Catholic learning process of Wu Yushan will be introduced first through poems in Aozhongzayong. Then, the process for the Western culture to be settled down in Macau will be introduced around the life of people and Catholic events in Macau. Through them, we will consider the meaning of the seaport city in the course of cultural contact between different civilizations.
Through not a many of poems reaching 30 poems in Aozhongzayong, various living aspects in Macau as a place for cultural interchanges between the East and West during the 17th century are revealed in a good manner. Especially, the life of Wu Yushan who learned Christianity in Colégio de São Paulo at the age of 50 reveals the features of a seaport city in a good way, where heterogeneous cultures were exchanged. In addition, as he contained the meeting and change of both the East and West in a special contact zone of a seaport city called Macau into phrases with seven characters, they could be deemed innovative in details.
Conclusions may be led by outlining the following two implications for the meaning of “Aozhongzayong”. First, strengths of a painter Wu Yushan are well revealed. As if we evaluate poems of Wang Wei as “a painting in a poem and a poem in a painting”, Wu Yushan representing the landscape painting circle at the early Qing Dynasty were observing the nature of Macau as a priest of the Society of Jesus to sing his agonies about life and death into poems in the nature along the natural beauty. Then, the poems of Wu Yushan are well succeeded to the spirit of “poetic history” as a type of poem in the realistic way of Du Fu. As the poems of Du Fu well reflect the image of society at the times, we call his poems “poetic history”. Just like that way, the poems of Wu Yushan well reflect the living of Portuguese, black slaves and Dan people who lived around Macau in the 17th century. Especially, the poems about the Saint Xaverius March or Christmas happening in Macau are valuable data which have never mentioned even in “Aomenjilüe(≪澳門記略≫)” called the text for the historical study in Macau. The poems of Wu Yushan have not only the value of poems but also the value for historical data to show the daily living which are not recorded in the history.