The characteristics of the “International Order until 2030” can be summed up as: polarization of wealth and knowledge, weaponization of the economy, and the spread of populist leadership. The new cold war between the United States and China fuels these three phenomena. Liberalism, which envisions the building of international cooperation and peace through liberal institutions and democratic values, faces serious challenges. Realism should move away from “war inevitability” theory and pay attention to a complex power game between great powers that does not involve physical violence. Moon Jae-in administration’s Sunshine Policy 3.0 focuses on self-reliance and national unity between the two Koreas. The stance of first providing economic aid to North Korea – a country that seeks to complete its status as a nuclear power – runs counter to realism, which values security, and liberalism, which emphasizes reciprocity. Korea-Japan and Korea-US relations, which are subordinate to pro-North Korea and anti-Japanese nationalism, are in crisis in terms of mutual trust and policy cooperation. The economic difficulties and diplomatic discord South Korea is experiencing are the result of drifting strategies and policies rather than the external environment. South Korea’s populism is unusual in that it has brought about sharp controversies and divisions in the country’s identity and national interests compared to that in the United States, Europe, South America, and the Middle East. The domestic political choices of Korean voters that produced the current administration and the foreign policy of the new administration are mutually irrelevant and even contradict each other. It is up to the people to either ignore or overcome this reality.