This study examined the notions of the stage and law of the development of higher mental functioning as suggested by Vygotsky s cultural-historical theory, and explored the educational meaning of those concepts. While today s mainstream psychology is interested in measuring independent psychological traits at the individual s current level of development and finding their relationships with other psychological traits, the genesis and developmental history of the interfunctional psychological systems are the central theme of Vygotsky s psychological study. In this context, it is important to consider potential developmental paths which are assumed to exist for the future as well as the actual developmental trajectory. This is called the zone of proximal development(ZPD). This study, within the Vygotskian theoretical framework, examined the developmental transition from natural to cultural, from social to individual, and from spontaneous to voluntary forms of behavior, and discussed four developmental laws governing those transitional processes-mediation, sociogenesis, ingrowth, and intellectualization. This study also reexamined the concept of the ZPD which has been widely applied in the educational context and attempted to restore its original meaning, focusing on the ‘emerging’ structure of dynamic mental functions. Finally, it discussed the importance of concept learning for facilitating understanding, transformation, and generation of ideas, education for personalization characterized as differentiation of sign-mediated activities, and education for intellectualization which aims at promoting intellectual autonomy.