1. Research Purpose and Questions
Although the Korean women's environmental movement has contributed by expanding environmental activities into the daily life of the mainstream women's movement, it is far from the gender conscious activities. Thus, this study aims to propose ways to improve women's involvement in the environmental movement as an autonomous agent, but not as objects of the movement, and ultimately help realize gender equality in activism and the international community in the era of globalization.
In this study, the Korean women's environmental movement is defined as an organized activity for anti-environmental pollution. The scope of the study is not limited to activities informed by a gender perspective~ but includes all activities performed as citizens. In reality, most Korean women in the movement have participated in the activities without attention to gender concerns.
What has been the impact of globalization on the establishment of a gender equal environmental movement? Specifically, what is the impact of globalization on the Korean women's environmental movement? how do they respond and react to global tendencies? and what aspects can they contribute to the establishment of the global environmental movement from a gendered perspective? In this context, the research questions are as follows:
① What are the gender problems in the Korean women~ s environmental movement?
② What patriarchal elements impede women's subjective participation in Korea?
③ What influences do global tendencies and solidarity in the global women's environmental movement bring about in the Korean movement?
④ What are the implications of the responses of the Korean women's environmental movement to the global ecofeminists' efforts to increase women's subjective participation?
2. Research Methods and Data Collection
The major research methods are in-depth interview and literature review. For the in-depth interviews, 10 women in the environmental movement in the Seoul area were interviewed between April and May in 2001.
This research project investigates whether globalization has brought about greater gender equality in the women's environmental movement in Korea through global citizen solidarity, and to see what are the positions and responses of Korean women in the environmental movement toward international trends.
Based on the data, we can conclude as follows:
① Women's relationship to nature that stems from women's daily life experiences in the local do not easily change. Thus, the distinctiveness among women of different nations tends to remain unchanged at this stage of the globalization process because of existing historical legacies.
② The strong essentialist characteristics in their motivation and the activities relevant to domestic labor reflect more rigid patriarchy traditions in Korean society than in other societies.
③ Globalization generally brings social changes that tend toward greater gender equality in consciousness, systems, and social movements via the flow of global standards and norms. However, in the Korean women's environmental movement, although some changes have started through trans-national organizations and global solidarity, its influence has been weak so far. This is because technology changes rapidly in Korea, but consciousness does not change as easily.
④ The reluctance among Korean women to accept feminism and ecofeminism shows friction between the global and the local because both statements do not cover Korean women's daily life experiences and social psychology.
In sum, this research has implications for globalization. On the one hand, changes in technology without changes in consciousness do not easily bring about gender-concerned agents in the movement. On the other hand, the friction between the global and the local and the lack of reflection of local experience in the movement impedes the international trend towards gender equality in