This article tries to examine historically the ideology, institutions and educational practice of the Korean modern school education in term of Human Dignity. Modern school education was founded on the statist concern which includes the loyalty to king and nation and national prosperity and defense. Although the opportunity of common schools for Koreans was expanded under the Japanese Occupation, it was to upbringing Loyal imperial subject on the basis of the Imperial Rescript on Education. Furthermore, unhuman school cultures took roots, such as charging tuition fee or disciplines focused on regulation and control. In the late stage of Japanese Occupation, school education was replaced with training, which was hardly able to be named “education”. After liberation, Korean educational ideology of Hongikinkan(弘益人間) was introduced. However, it was an nominal educational ideology specified by law, it was interpreted in different ways by regimes. They made it anti-communist morals, thought reform, remaking human, the Second economy or the illustrious spirit of our forefather’s et al. The most dramatic example was the establishment of The Charter of National Education. Through the 4ㆍ19 Revolution, The social claims were raised for the democracy of human dignity, liberty, and equality. Henceforth, the human dignity discourse started to be developed in education. Teachers’ Union Associations and even the Korean Federation of Education Associations asserted that educational system should be operated in accordance with the principle of human dignity. After the mid-1970s, dehumanizing of education was actively discussed in educational practices. Interpersonal relationship between teacher and student were emphasized. Therefore, it was insisted that educational corruption, corporal punishment, and other inhumane treatment should be eradicated. In the 1980s, the humanization of education discourse proceeded towards the structural problems related to the historical insights on society and political economy, as well as individual internal maturation. For instance, the Korean Teachers and Educational Workers Union argued for humanization of school as a mean of full development and recovery of humanity.